Tag Archives: trends

The Truth About Antioxidants

Continuing with my series devoted to uncovering the truth in health trends, today I am going to discuss a common feature of food advertisements. Antioxidants are compounds that delay some types of cell damage, which is why they are portrayed as healthy in certain food ads. Foods with antioxidants are also marketed to prevent disease, like in this Fitness Magazine article about healthy eating:

http://http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/recipes/healthy-eating/tips/top-antioxidant-healthy-foods/

Although this sounds good when making a smoothie purchase, knowing the facts about antioxidants is imperative to truly understanding what benefits you are reaping when potentially paying extra for food containing antioxidants. Does a diet high in antioxidants truly prevent disease? Read more to find out.

Look familiar?
Look familiar?

Don’t worry. Everything you thought you knew about antioxidants is not a lie. Vegetables and fruits are major sources of these substances. Research done at the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has shown that people maintaining a regular diet high in antioxidants are generally the healthiest population. However, the same research cannot conclude that it is the action of the antioxidants that is preventing disease in the lives of these people. Other factors under consideration are “other components of these foods, other factors in people’s diets, or other lifestyle choices.”

In addition, similar studies showed that antioxidants did not help in the prevention of chronic disease like cancer and heart problems. In fact, high doses of supplements like beta-carotene were actually shown to increase lung cancer risk in smokers, and high doses of vitamin E supplements increased risk of prostate cancer. That being said, it seems the antioxidant consumption follows the theme of “healthy in moderation.” In addition, consuming your daily dose of antioxidants will always be better through eating an apple or some broccoli, as opposed to an artificial supplement.

My next question to explore is this: How exactly do antioxidants prevent cell damage?

An "Antioxidant Recipe" (image source: Viosan Health)
An “Antioxidant Recipe” (image source: Viosan Health)

When you metabolize food into energy your body can use or when you exercise, unstable molecules called “free radicals” are formed. Free radicals are also present in the environment from sunlight and from air pollution. Free radicals are dangerous because they trigger oxidative stress, which can then cause cell damage. The danger surrounding oxidative stress revolves around a chemical imbalance in the body and a failure to detoxify the effects of free radicals (News Medical). Still confused? Check out this creatively organized video by Active Beat that explains the connection between free radicals, oxidative stress, and the action of antioxidants:

Essentially, antioxidants help counter the harmful effect of oxidative stress due to high free radical levels in the body (hence the name anti-oxidant). Without the counteractive impact of antioxidants, oxidative stress is shown to increase risk of chronic diseases (cancer, heart problems) and age-related diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Macular Degeneration).

Not sure what macular degeneration is? Check out this article here:

http://labroots.com/trending/id/1410/inhibiting-mast-cell-degranulation-a-new-therapy-for-macular-degeneration/health-and-medicine

Take-away messages from this blog post:

  1. Antioxidants are not bad. Just get as many from fruit as you can, and don’t overdo it with your vitamin supplements.
  2. “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” may or may not be true – scientists aren’t actually sure if it’s specifically antioxidants in “healthy” foods that prevent disease. It could very well be that people who keep high amounts of fruits and vegetables in their diet are much more likely to also exercise regularly, drink less alcohol, and participate in other destructive habits like smoking.
  3. When you’re at the grocery store and are convinced to purchase something because of a label promising healthy antioxidants (or any other current health trend for that matter), know what you are spending your money on. Shop smart, know your food!
Fruit and vegetable juices are popular choices for antioxidant intake. These particular bottles of V8 also advertise no high fructose corn syrup. See my previous blog to find out why HFCS isn't so bad.
Fruit and vegetable juices are popular choices for antioxidant intake. These particular bottles of V8 also advertise no high fructose corn syrup. See my previous blog to find out why HFCS actually isn’t so bad.

For a complete analysis of antioxidants, check out this NIH page where I got most of my information for this post:

https://nccih.nih.gov/health/antioxidants/introduction.htm

#ScienceKara

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Autoimmune Disorders and Gluten Intolerance

Some medical conditions require a patient to eliminate gluten from their diet.

Celiac disease, which affects about 1% of the population of the United States (Mayo Clinic), is an autoimmune disorder based on an intolerance of gluten proteins. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system attacks particles that are normally not harmful to the body, either ingested food proteins or the body’s own cells.

Celiac disease occurs when the immune system attacks the body’s own cells after gluten is ingested. Specifically, the cells of the small intestine are targeted. Celiac disease-related attacks on the small intestine damage the cells that absorb nutrients during digestion (Celiac Disease Foundation).

Celiac disease is hereditary, meaning it runs in families. The pattern of inheritance is unknown (NIH). However, 95% of people with celiac disease have the same gene specific for celiac disease predisposition (Medscape, Genetics of Celiac Disease).

Rheumatoid arthritis is another autoimmune disorder relating to gluten intolerance. However, gluten is only one of many potential signals that can lead to an autoimmune attack. Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation of the joints – resulting in swelling, pain, and decreased movement ability (Arthritis Foundation).

Bailey Brislin, a UNC-Chapel Hill sophomore biology major preparing for medical school, was diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during her first year in high school. “My ankle had been swollen for months. We went to multiple doctors that couldn’t tell me what was wrong,” Brislin recalls of the time before her diagnosis. Finally, an ankle specialist ordered an MRI and referred Brislin to a rheumatologist after blood test results indicated Rheumatoid factor (RF) in her system. RF is an antibody characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis patients as well as people with other autoimmune disorders (Medscape, Rheumatoid Factor).

The next step to calculating Brislin’s proper treatment was a 5-week series of food sensitivity testing. Although the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not fully known, potential factors triggering joint inflammation are food proteins, pathogens, female hormones, obesity, stress, and other environmental factors (Arthritis Foundation).

The results of Brislin’s sensitivity tests showed intolerance of gluten and dairy: typical occurrences among rheumatoid arthritis patients. After a while, Brislin realized that eliminating gluten from her diet had a much stronger impact on reducing  her joint inflammation than eliminating dairy.

“After a month off of gluten, I felt better. I was able to stop taking pain medication just by eliminating gluten alone,” Brislin says, “but I should be dairy-free too.” Many years later, Brislin still regularly takes immunosuppressant drugs to improve her condition.

After many years of maintaining a gluten-free diet to ensure her joint inflammation does not return, Brislin has also gathered an opinion on the growing trend of a gluten-free diet. Brislin compares people going gluten-free for no necessary reason to people trying a vegetarian diet just to see if they can do it. “There are people glorifying the gluten-free diet. It’s just bread,” Brislin says, in response to people going gluten-free for supposed “just to be healthy” reasons.

“So gluten-free becomes this very popular trend… and I get all of this criticism for being gluten-free. My rheumatologist always talks about how you don’t have to find the specific scientific data you want, just work with what has been proven in your own case,” Brislin says as she describes her encounters with gluten-free skeptics. Brislin experienced the growth of the gluten-free trend from a very unique perspective. She understands the necessity of eliminating gluten from the diet in certain circumstances but is also critical of the diet in other instances.

Her evaluation below perfectly sums up my goal in writing this series on the growing obsession with gluten:

“There are a lot of people who are very healthy who also eat gluten. I don’t think there’s anything inherently wrong with gluten – it’s not an evil food. Not eating a lot of bread is probably a good thing, but stopping eating bread and replacing it with gluten-free bread doesn’t make much sense… I’m not sure what dietary benefits people think that’s providing…”

Stay tuned for my third and last segment of my series on the gluten-free trend. This last post will contain further analysis on the development of the gluten-free trend, data from a poll of opinions about it, and an interview with Raleigh allergist Dr. Vaishali Mankad.

What is gluten?

Contrary to what you may have heard, gluten is not harmful for most people to ingest.

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Let me set the record straight. Gluten refers to a specific set of proteins. Proteins are large molecules made up of amino acids that perform a vast range of actions necessary for life in all living organisms. In this case, gluten proteins contribute to vital life functions for the plants of wheat, barley, and rye.

The word “gluten” comes from the Latin word for glue, and rightly so. Gluten proteins are responsible for the qualities in bread such as elasticity, chewiness, and shape1. When baking bread and other products containing these proteins, the mixture thickens and rises because of thousands of gluten proteins sticking together as the temperature increases.

Foods containing gluten:

(Not a comprehensive list)

  • Pasta
  • Bread
  • Crackers
  • Baked goods
  • Cereal and granola
  • Pancakes and waffles
  • Flour tortillas
  • Beer
  • Milkshakes

While reflecting on this list, it may seem that going gluten-free could be a way to reduce fat intake and lose some weight. After all, beer and bread are notorious for contributing to weight gain. Avoiding these foods could help you lose weight, but gluten is not at all the only ingredient contributing to this circumstance. If you choose instead gluten-free substitutes for the food items listed above, you are not improving your chances at weight loss. In fact, you are more likely to gain weight by changing your diet to eating the gluten-free form of these foods.

In a study done last year in Spain, scientists looked at the nutritional differences between gluten-containing products and their gluten-free alternatives.2 Gluten-free bread was found to contain less protein, but two times the amount of fat (a lose-lose situation). Similarly, gluten-free pasta exhibited these changes, and in addition it contained more sodium and less fiber (more bad news). Cereal bars and flour followed this same trend.

Although it has been shown that food altered to be gluten-free is less nutritious than its natural form, fortunately there are plenty of naturally gluten-free options to choose from for people suffering from Celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other conditions in the realm of gluten intolerance. Fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, and potato are all naturally gluten-free options for healthy eating.1

Now that I have established what gluten is, what food it is found in, and the nature of gluten-free substitutes, hopefully your opinion of gluten has been fine-tuned. In the next part of this series about gluten, I will discuss Celiac disease as well as rheumatoid arthritis – and why people living with these conditions live a gluten-free lifestyle.

References:

  1. Gluten-Free Diet – Celiac Disease Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2015, from http://celiac.org/live-gluten-free/glutenfreediet/
  1. Miranda, J., Lasa, A., Bustamante, M.A., Churruca, I., and Simon, E. March 2014. Nutritional Differences Between a Gluten-free Diet and a Diet Containing Equivalent Products with Gluten. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 69(410).

Image source:

berrycart.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/gluten.png

Special thanks to Christine Rardin for the video reference!

What’s the deal with gluten?

In the last decade, the presence of “gluten-free” products has drastically increased on our grocery store shelves, TV commercials, and in our conversations. “She’s gluten free now” is a statement we hear often while catching up with friends. Why is gluten all of a sudden such a problem? What IS gluten? Should everyone eliminate gluten from their diet? All of these questions and more will soon be answered in a 3-part series of blog posts about gluten and the recently popular gluten-free diet trend. I plan to describe gluten and the foods it is naturally found in and also discuss the nature of gluten-free substitutes. Plus, look forward to exclusive interviews with UNC Chapel Hill student, Bailey Brislin, as she explains why she follows a gluten-free diet, and Dr. Vaishali Mankad, a practicing allergist at Allergy Partners of Raleigh.

Understanding the biology surrounding gluten as well as its impact on our health is important. We are constantly in search of the best diet to follow for optimal health, and the media has a huge impact on what we think will help us lose weight or be healthier.

Is eliminating gluten from your diet the right choice for you? Stay tuned to find out!