Tag Archives: biology

Thinking About Immune Cells…

In a recent poll of my Twitter followers, I asked (on a whim while writing an article for work) what their favorite lymphocyte was.

Lymphocyte Poll

Cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells) were the clear winner (disclaimer – Twitter only allows four choices. There are of course many other lymphocytes to choose from). Tc cells are also known as Killer T cells, and rightfully so, due to the fact that they recognize certain patterns on the surfaces of cells either infected with an infectious microorganism or that are growing abnormally (tumor cells). Even their name suggests their nature: cyto – (cell) toxic (deadly). After recognizing the dangerous cells, Tc cells then act on their own to kill them, releasing enzymes like perforin, granzymes, and granulysin.

Perforin enzymes literally poke holes in the membrane of the suspicious cell, allowing granulysin and granzymes to enter. Granulysin attacks the surface of any viral particles, bacterial cells, or parasitic organisms that may have invaded. In some cases, granzymes enter the invader and cause it to self-destruct.

Or, in the words of University of South Florida medical school student Scott Nelson, “they can kill all by themselves.”

Lymphocyte Poll Response

Let’s take a minute and think about the underdogs of the poll results, the unsung heroes of immune protection: regulatory T cells. Although a meager nine percent of the responses to my poll indicated these lymphocytes were immune cells of choice, they certainly deserve a shout out.

While T helper cells are off stimulating cytokine production, activating B cells and running the block during a pathogenic invasion, the regulatory T cells stay primed for preventing any autoimmune activity that may occur by accident. The body’s immune system is prone to erring just like any other machine, and regulatory T cells exist to prevent and reverse any potentially deleterious actions of helper T cells if they were to accidentally target the body’s own cells, mistaking them as foreign antigens.

So while lymphocytes like T helper cells and Tc cells are out fighting pathogenic crime and protecting the body from infection (by all means a noble venture), regulatory T cells stay at home in case of dangerous mutiny or friendly fire.

Now you know a little bit more about what T cells do for our body, especially important to consider since we’re in the middle of flu season. On that note, I never even mentioned B cells, the other piece of the immunological puzzle, being the lymphocytes that are responsible for antibody production. Until next time…

#ScienceKara is Back

After a 2-month hiatus, I have returned to my beloved science blog devoted to debunking scientific myths in public discourse.

Although I regret that I had to take a hiatus, I am glad that I used the time to get settled in a new location: Charlotte, North Carolina! After an acceptance into a graduate program for Technical and Professional Writing at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, I quickly relocated to the area and looked for a job.

Full-time writing jobs for biology majors are not so common in this area, though (maybe if I was into business or banking it’d be a different story). I did manage to put together a series of gigs to pay the bills and give me some great insight into the potential of my impending career.

First, in June I started writing for LabRoots.com, the leading scientific social networking website and producer of educational virutal events and webinars. I love what I do for this company and truly appreciate their mission of connecting both scientific and non-scientific communities.

Next, in August I started working for SkinnyMs.com, a delightful health and fitness website providing “busy women with easy access to healthy living tools including clean eating recipes, menu planning and effective workouts and fitness programs.” I do social media management and article writing for Skinny Ms., and I love every second of it. I get to learn so much every day.

For a few weeks, I’ll be an after-school program instructor for Mad Science, a national franchise that brings science education to millions of children each year. I get to perform fun scientific experiments 2 afternoons a week to elementary aged children.

Lastly, I am a marketing intern for the North Carolina Research Campus in Kannapolis, NC (just a half hour north of Charlotte). This campus, created by David H. Murdock (owner of Dole Foods), miraculously combines public and private institutions based on one mutual goal: enhancing human health, nutrition and agriculture through innovate research and development. As marketing intern, I’ll be writing articles and doing whatever I can to help get the word out to the scientific community and to the public about the aims of this campus.

My passion for telling the truth about science and nutrition only grows stronger each day as I work in these 4 different roles – communicating, writing, and thinking. With your help, we can build a more educated public. Let’s get started. Next post in 30 minutes.

#GoScience  #ScienceKara

FDA Alert On Cilantro From Puebla, Mexico

The recent report of a cyclosporiasis outbreak from cilantro plants is not the first to be issued. Outbreaks also occurred in 2012, 2013, and 2014, all pointing to cilantro from the Mexican state of Puebla.

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan pathogen that specifically infects humans (cyclosporiasis). Protozoan infections are generally more difficult to treat than bacterial or viral infections since protozoa are eukaryotes, just like us. Fewer anti-protozoa treatments exist since there are more similarities between humans and protozoa (and thus less unique targets for drugs) than there are between humans and bacteria (bacteria are prokaryotes – because there are so many differences between human cells and bacteria cells we have a lot of targets for antibacterials).

Cyclosporiasis infections cause diarrhea (like other food-poisoning-related illnesses). In addition to being infected directly from eating contaminated cilantro, people can also become ill through contamination from feces of someone already infected.

Since 2013, the FDA has investigated “11 farms and packing houses that produce cilantro in the state of Puebla” and found 8 farms to either be carrying C. cayetanensis or to be exhibiting dangerous conditions capable of harboring the parasite. The FDA report said these suspect farms contained “human feces and toilet paper found in growing fields and around facilities.”

Because of these findings, the FDA concluded that cilantro products from Puebla are “subject to refusal of admission,” meaning companies receiving cilantro from Puebla can refuse shipments without examination. It is important to note that this FDA report does not include “multi-ingredient processed foods” containing cilantro (only fresh cilantro, intact or cut/chopped).

For the next couple of months if you are buying fresh cilantro, make sure to check the origin of its cultivation. Until the FDA lifts the alert on cilantro from Puebla, it’s not safe to eat. However if you do develop food-poisoning symptoms after eating cilantro, you will be okay. Refuel your body with electrolytes and water – and maintain strict hygiene! You want to flush the parasite out of your system without infecting anyone else.

 

#ScienceKara #GoGuacamole

For more on this issue, check out the following resources:

LabRoots Coverage

Direct access to FDA report

The Truth About Antioxidants

Continuing with my series devoted to uncovering the truth in health trends, today I am going to discuss a common feature of food advertisements. Antioxidants are compounds that delay some types of cell damage, which is why they are portrayed as healthy in certain food ads. Foods with antioxidants are also marketed to prevent disease, like in this Fitness Magazine article about healthy eating:

http://http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/recipes/healthy-eating/tips/top-antioxidant-healthy-foods/

Although this sounds good when making a smoothie purchase, knowing the facts about antioxidants is imperative to truly understanding what benefits you are reaping when potentially paying extra for food containing antioxidants. Does a diet high in antioxidants truly prevent disease? Read more to find out.

Look familiar?
Look familiar?

Don’t worry. Everything you thought you knew about antioxidants is not a lie. Vegetables and fruits are major sources of these substances. Research done at the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has shown that people maintaining a regular diet high in antioxidants are generally the healthiest population. However, the same research cannot conclude that it is the action of the antioxidants that is preventing disease in the lives of these people. Other factors under consideration are “other components of these foods, other factors in people’s diets, or other lifestyle choices.”

In addition, similar studies showed that antioxidants did not help in the prevention of chronic disease like cancer and heart problems. In fact, high doses of supplements like beta-carotene were actually shown to increase lung cancer risk in smokers, and high doses of vitamin E supplements increased risk of prostate cancer. That being said, it seems the antioxidant consumption follows the theme of “healthy in moderation.” In addition, consuming your daily dose of antioxidants will always be better through eating an apple or some broccoli, as opposed to an artificial supplement.

My next question to explore is this: How exactly do antioxidants prevent cell damage?

An "Antioxidant Recipe" (image source: Viosan Health)
An “Antioxidant Recipe” (image source: Viosan Health)

When you metabolize food into energy your body can use or when you exercise, unstable molecules called “free radicals” are formed. Free radicals are also present in the environment from sunlight and from air pollution. Free radicals are dangerous because they trigger oxidative stress, which can then cause cell damage. The danger surrounding oxidative stress revolves around a chemical imbalance in the body and a failure to detoxify the effects of free radicals (News Medical). Still confused? Check out this creatively organized video by Active Beat that explains the connection between free radicals, oxidative stress, and the action of antioxidants:

Essentially, antioxidants help counter the harmful effect of oxidative stress due to high free radical levels in the body (hence the name anti-oxidant). Without the counteractive impact of antioxidants, oxidative stress is shown to increase risk of chronic diseases (cancer, heart problems) and age-related diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Macular Degeneration).

Not sure what macular degeneration is? Check out this article here:

http://labroots.com/trending/id/1410/inhibiting-mast-cell-degranulation-a-new-therapy-for-macular-degeneration/health-and-medicine

Take-away messages from this blog post:

  1. Antioxidants are not bad. Just get as many from fruit as you can, and don’t overdo it with your vitamin supplements.
  2. “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” may or may not be true – scientists aren’t actually sure if it’s specifically antioxidants in “healthy” foods that prevent disease. It could very well be that people who keep high amounts of fruits and vegetables in their diet are much more likely to also exercise regularly, drink less alcohol, and participate in other destructive habits like smoking.
  3. When you’re at the grocery store and are convinced to purchase something because of a label promising healthy antioxidants (or any other current health trend for that matter), know what you are spending your money on. Shop smart, know your food!
Fruit and vegetable juices are popular choices for antioxidant intake. These particular bottles of V8 also advertise no high fructose corn syrup. See my previous blog to find out why HFCS isn't so bad.
Fruit and vegetable juices are popular choices for antioxidant intake. These particular bottles of V8 also advertise no high fructose corn syrup. See my previous blog to find out why HFCS actually isn’t so bad.

For a complete analysis of antioxidants, check out this NIH page where I got most of my information for this post:

https://nccih.nih.gov/health/antioxidants/introduction.htm

#ScienceKara

The Truth About Sunscreen and SPF

The CDC lists increasing exposure to UV light as “the most preventable cause” of skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States. This includes natural sunlight or artificial sunlight from tanning beds. Since we can’t wear full-body protective suits every day to prevent unwanted sun exposure, we use sunscreen to protect our skin from harmful rays of sun. I have studied a series of videos produced by Huffington Post where Dr. Neal Schultz discusses various elements of sun protection. He debunks several sunscreen misconceptions of which you should be informed! Luckily for you, I have compiled the most important information here. Read on!

Image Source: ClipartPanda
Image Source: ClipartPanda
“SPF,” the acronym you see on all sunscreen products, means Sunburn Protection Factor. It’s a relative measurement that describes how much sun is required to cause a burn considering the current amount of sun protection on your skin, compared to the amount of sun required to cause a burn on skin without any protection at all (FDA).

The important thing to realize about SPF is that it’s directly related to the amount of sun you are exposed to, not the time you are in the sun (FDA). Time and amount are not always interchangeable; the sun is more powerful at noon than it is at 10AM. For example, you can ingest the same amount of alcohol by taking a shot of liquor that you can by drinking one whole beer. SPF is relative in the same way. The FDA lists other factors affecting the relationship between SPF and the power of the sun including skin type, the amount of sunscreen applied, frequency of reapplication, and the fact that “greater solar intensity occurs at lower altitudes.” All of these things must be taken in to consideration when using sunscreen.

Another important question we ask when picking out a sunscreen to use is this: what SPF should I use? It’s vital to understand how protective each SPF number is, and first you must understand that SPF values are not linear. Get this: a sunscreen labeled 15 SPF gives you 88% protection from the sun. Moving up to 30 SPF, you increase your sun protection to 95%. However, when you move up to 60 SPF, you are only getting four more percent protection from the sun.

“Part of this numbers game is drive by consumer demand,” Dr. Schultz points out.

Our advice: save some money and use 15 or 30 SPF sunscreen, and reapply often to account for sweating and rubbing off in the water when swimming. You are wasting your money on sunscreens labeled 60, 70, and 100 SPF. Plus, when using such high value SPF sunscreen, people may incorrectly assume that applying enough sunscreen and reapplying later are less important. If you don’t use enough sunscreen, the SPF value greatly decreases, and you leave yourself very vulnerable to harmful rays of sun.

Another issue I looked into was that of spray vs. lotion. I am personally guilty of taking the easy way out, choosing a spray sunscreen over lotion to cut down on time spent applying sunscreen and to prevent my hands from getting sticky/sandy/etc. FutureDerm.com tested it and concluded that spray sunscreen is less effective than lotion. This result is derived from the fact that SPF is only as powerful as the amount of sunscreen that you use on your skin. What I mean by that is this: FutureDerm discovered that when people apply spray sunscreen, they end up using much less than if they applied using a lotion. Like I discussed earlier, not using enough sunscreen drastically decreases the value of SPF protection. So, if you’re going to try and save some time by using spray sunscreen, make sure to spray a generous amount on your skin, or you’ll be making up the time saved by rubbing aloe on your burnt skin 8 hours later.

Lastly, keep in mind that UV-A rays, the dangerous rays of sun that cause skin cancer and premature aging, don’t diminish in the winter. It’s always important to wear sunscreen on a daily basis. Also, sunscreen SPF is not additive. If you wear moisturizer that provides 15 SPF protection and foundation makeup that also has 15 SPF protection, you don’t get a combined protection of 30 SPF. You get the SPF protection of the first thing that you put on your skin. If you can, make sure that the first layer is sunscreen, not foundation.

My hope from doing this research and from writing this blog post is that you’ll change your habits based on learning the facts. Take care of your skin!

Check out Dr. Schultz’s videos for yourself here:

http://videos.huffingtonpost.com/tech/how-to-choose-the-right-sunscreen-266799626

The Truth About High Fructose Corn Syrup

In 2010, the Corn Refiners Association (CRA) began producing TV commercials defending and promoting the usage of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a sweetener. What is it about HFCS that gave it a bad reputation in the first place? My guess is that it’s the “syrup” part. That word doesn’t exactly scream “healthy.” Regardless, I’ve done the research and made my conclusion about HFCS – read more for the answer! For now, check out of the CRA’s promotional advertisements:

First, let’s think about what HFCS is. What makes it different from table sugar?

In the 1970s, there were increased taxes on sugar but subsidies on corn, “making it a much cheaper sweetener than table sugar” (American Chemical Society). Using advanced chemical processes, sweetener manufactures began to break down corn into corn starch, then into corn syrup, and then into glucose, a monosaccharide (basic building block of carbohydrates). However, fructose (also a monosaccharide) is naturally sweeter than glucose, so they broke the glucose down even further. Think about it like this:

Corn diagram

Table sugar is sucrose, a polysaccharides (poly = many, polysaccharides = many monosaccharides). The connection: there’s no nutritional difference between using sucrose as a sweetener verses using fructose! My information comes from a video produced by the American Chemical Society on March 31, 2015 and seen on BusinessInsider.com just last week. Check it out here:

Does it seem like I’ve made it pretty clear that HFCS is no worse than sugar to sweeten your favorite foods? I hope so, because that was my goal. However, the topic has historically been controversial in the medical community. On his blog in 2014, Dr. Mark Hyman strongly criticizes HFCS as a sweetener option and condemns the CRA for funding a commercial campaign to promote the safety of HFCS as a viable sweetener. Hyman’s main points denouncing HFCS are two questionable claims:

  • HFCS consumption causes obesity, diabetes, and other problems
  • HFCS contains mercury

First of all, Hyman should not be so quick to shun HFCS for causing obesity. Table sugar (sucrose) does the exact same thing when overconsumed. The key is that both HFCS and sugar are acceptable sweeteners when used in moderation. HFCS is included by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the list of “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) food. The FDA also states that they “are not aware of any evidence… that there is a difference in safety between foods containing [high fructose corn syrup] and foods containing similar amounts of other nutritive sweeteners with approximately equal glucose and fructose content, such as sucrose, honey, or other traditional sweeteners.”

The FDA is undoubtedly reliable, but if you would like to hear more about the claim that HFCS contains mercury, Dr. Jim Laidler explains in further detail in this short video:

http://sweetsurprise.com/hfcs-faqs#108

In addition, the video produced by the ACS and posted by Business Insider cites multiple reliable scientific journals, including a study published in Advances in Nutrition just two years ago.

The average American consumes 23 tablespoons of sugar a day, when you should consume less than 10 (According to the video)! Whether you are eating food sweetened by table sugar (sucrose) or high fructose corn syrup, the dangers of overconsumption are the same. Eat your sweets in moderation!

Sources: American Chemical Society, Corn Refiners Association, United States Food and Drug Administration, Business Insider

Gluten: The Protein, The Trend, The Choice

In the five years since her rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis, Bailey Brislin can attest to the increase of gluten’s appearance in public discourse and on social media. A poll I conducted asking 34 random participants various questions about gluten revealed a lot about public opinion and knowledge surrounding the gluten-free trend. Collectively, it seems like these are the two opposing misconceptions about gluten:

  1. Gluten is an unhealthy component of food and should be avoided by everyone
  2. The gluten-free diet is entirely a conspiracy; no one should have to avoid gluten

Although a strong majority of the participants did not actually follow a gluten-free diet themselves, 90% knew at least one other person who did. Two-thirds of these people known to be gluten-free either had celiac disease or another gluten intolerance. Other participants listed their gluten-free friends as simply following the fad or trying “to be healthy.”

“I think people who are gluten free by choice with no medical need for it just don’t understand the science of gluten very well.” Becky Turner, a senior biology major at UNC-Chapel Hill, has often pondered with me the cause behind the growing popularity of the gluten-free diet. “Your diet is your choice, but uninformed choices are causing those who don’t have a choice to suffer from the subsequent bad reputation of being gluten-free.”

Although true gluten-free individuals like Brislin may receive criticism from a few skeptics, at least the growing trend in the gluten-free diet is increasing the number of gluten-free products on grocery shelves. In 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined “gluten-free” as products containing less than 20 parts per million of gluten (FDA, allergens). However, since this labeling is voluntary, there has been an increase of marketing products as “gluten-free” even though their contents have always been naturally absent of gluten (example: hummus).

Rebecca Houser, a weight-loss consultant with a degree in nutrition science from North Carolina State University, predicts the future of the gluten-free trend: “Unless you have an actual sensitivity to gluten, the hype will die down and we will move on to the next fad diet.”

So, after all of this clarification on what gluten is and who is truly impacted by it, how do we ascertain how the craze began? Ultimately, the beginning of the focus on gluten when talking about nutrition cannot be pinpointed to one study or one patient. However, it is possible and reasonable to think that technology and research have enhanced in the past decade to the point where disorders like celiac disease and rheumatoid arthritis are better understood. I hypothesize that it is this increased understanding that has led to a new light being shined upon gluten as a harmful product. When scientists were able to pinpoint gluten as a cause of illness, people with celiac disease and other gluten intolerance disorders begin to eat gluten-free as instructed by their doctors. Friends and family who heard about their lifestyle change may not have connected the aversion to gluten to become healthier with a unique medical condition. Hence, the association of “gluten” with “unhealthy.”

This, my friends, is an example of a classic health misconception. The bigger picture lesson here: ask why. If someone (not a doctor) tells you gluten is bad, do not take their word for it. Do the research yourself – be informed! And if eliminating gluten from your diet makes you feel better, that’s great! Shrug off any criticism. You know how you feel better than anyone else.

Autoimmune Disorders and Gluten Intolerance

Some medical conditions require a patient to eliminate gluten from their diet.

Celiac disease, which affects about 1% of the population of the United States (Mayo Clinic), is an autoimmune disorder based on an intolerance of gluten proteins. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system attacks particles that are normally not harmful to the body, either ingested food proteins or the body’s own cells.

Celiac disease occurs when the immune system attacks the body’s own cells after gluten is ingested. Specifically, the cells of the small intestine are targeted. Celiac disease-related attacks on the small intestine damage the cells that absorb nutrients during digestion (Celiac Disease Foundation).

Celiac disease is hereditary, meaning it runs in families. The pattern of inheritance is unknown (NIH). However, 95% of people with celiac disease have the same gene specific for celiac disease predisposition (Medscape, Genetics of Celiac Disease).

Rheumatoid arthritis is another autoimmune disorder relating to gluten intolerance. However, gluten is only one of many potential signals that can lead to an autoimmune attack. Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation of the joints – resulting in swelling, pain, and decreased movement ability (Arthritis Foundation).

Bailey Brislin, a UNC-Chapel Hill sophomore biology major preparing for medical school, was diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during her first year in high school. “My ankle had been swollen for months. We went to multiple doctors that couldn’t tell me what was wrong,” Brislin recalls of the time before her diagnosis. Finally, an ankle specialist ordered an MRI and referred Brislin to a rheumatologist after blood test results indicated Rheumatoid factor (RF) in her system. RF is an antibody characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis patients as well as people with other autoimmune disorders (Medscape, Rheumatoid Factor).

The next step to calculating Brislin’s proper treatment was a 5-week series of food sensitivity testing. Although the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not fully known, potential factors triggering joint inflammation are food proteins, pathogens, female hormones, obesity, stress, and other environmental factors (Arthritis Foundation).

The results of Brislin’s sensitivity tests showed intolerance of gluten and dairy: typical occurrences among rheumatoid arthritis patients. After a while, Brislin realized that eliminating gluten from her diet had a much stronger impact on reducing  her joint inflammation than eliminating dairy.

“After a month off of gluten, I felt better. I was able to stop taking pain medication just by eliminating gluten alone,” Brislin says, “but I should be dairy-free too.” Many years later, Brislin still regularly takes immunosuppressant drugs to improve her condition.

After many years of maintaining a gluten-free diet to ensure her joint inflammation does not return, Brislin has also gathered an opinion on the growing trend of a gluten-free diet. Brislin compares people going gluten-free for no necessary reason to people trying a vegetarian diet just to see if they can do it. “There are people glorifying the gluten-free diet. It’s just bread,” Brislin says, in response to people going gluten-free for supposed “just to be healthy” reasons.

“So gluten-free becomes this very popular trend… and I get all of this criticism for being gluten-free. My rheumatologist always talks about how you don’t have to find the specific scientific data you want, just work with what has been proven in your own case,” Brislin says as she describes her encounters with gluten-free skeptics. Brislin experienced the growth of the gluten-free trend from a very unique perspective. She understands the necessity of eliminating gluten from the diet in certain circumstances but is also critical of the diet in other instances.

Her evaluation below perfectly sums up my goal in writing this series on the growing obsession with gluten:

“There are a lot of people who are very healthy who also eat gluten. I don’t think there’s anything inherently wrong with gluten – it’s not an evil food. Not eating a lot of bread is probably a good thing, but stopping eating bread and replacing it with gluten-free bread doesn’t make much sense… I’m not sure what dietary benefits people think that’s providing…”

Stay tuned for my third and last segment of my series on the gluten-free trend. This last post will contain further analysis on the development of the gluten-free trend, data from a poll of opinions about it, and an interview with Raleigh allergist Dr. Vaishali Mankad.

What is gluten?

Contrary to what you may have heard, gluten is not harmful for most people to ingest.

(0:44)

Let me set the record straight. Gluten refers to a specific set of proteins. Proteins are large molecules made up of amino acids that perform a vast range of actions necessary for life in all living organisms. In this case, gluten proteins contribute to vital life functions for the plants of wheat, barley, and rye.

The word “gluten” comes from the Latin word for glue, and rightly so. Gluten proteins are responsible for the qualities in bread such as elasticity, chewiness, and shape1. When baking bread and other products containing these proteins, the mixture thickens and rises because of thousands of gluten proteins sticking together as the temperature increases.

Foods containing gluten:

(Not a comprehensive list)

  • Pasta
  • Bread
  • Crackers
  • Baked goods
  • Cereal and granola
  • Pancakes and waffles
  • Flour tortillas
  • Beer
  • Milkshakes

While reflecting on this list, it may seem that going gluten-free could be a way to reduce fat intake and lose some weight. After all, beer and bread are notorious for contributing to weight gain. Avoiding these foods could help you lose weight, but gluten is not at all the only ingredient contributing to this circumstance. If you choose instead gluten-free substitutes for the food items listed above, you are not improving your chances at weight loss. In fact, you are more likely to gain weight by changing your diet to eating the gluten-free form of these foods.

In a study done last year in Spain, scientists looked at the nutritional differences between gluten-containing products and their gluten-free alternatives.2 Gluten-free bread was found to contain less protein, but two times the amount of fat (a lose-lose situation). Similarly, gluten-free pasta exhibited these changes, and in addition it contained more sodium and less fiber (more bad news). Cereal bars and flour followed this same trend.

Although it has been shown that food altered to be gluten-free is less nutritious than its natural form, fortunately there are plenty of naturally gluten-free options to choose from for people suffering from Celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other conditions in the realm of gluten intolerance. Fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, and potato are all naturally gluten-free options for healthy eating.1

Now that I have established what gluten is, what food it is found in, and the nature of gluten-free substitutes, hopefully your opinion of gluten has been fine-tuned. In the next part of this series about gluten, I will discuss Celiac disease as well as rheumatoid arthritis – and why people living with these conditions live a gluten-free lifestyle.

References:

  1. Gluten-Free Diet – Celiac Disease Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2015, from http://celiac.org/live-gluten-free/glutenfreediet/
  1. Miranda, J., Lasa, A., Bustamante, M.A., Churruca, I., and Simon, E. March 2014. Nutritional Differences Between a Gluten-free Diet and a Diet Containing Equivalent Products with Gluten. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 69(410).

Image source:

berrycart.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/gluten.png

Special thanks to Christine Rardin for the video reference!

What’s the deal with gluten?

In the last decade, the presence of “gluten-free” products has drastically increased on our grocery store shelves, TV commercials, and in our conversations. “She’s gluten free now” is a statement we hear often while catching up with friends. Why is gluten all of a sudden such a problem? What IS gluten? Should everyone eliminate gluten from their diet? All of these questions and more will soon be answered in a 3-part series of blog posts about gluten and the recently popular gluten-free diet trend. I plan to describe gluten and the foods it is naturally found in and also discuss the nature of gluten-free substitutes. Plus, look forward to exclusive interviews with UNC Chapel Hill student, Bailey Brislin, as she explains why she follows a gluten-free diet, and Dr. Vaishali Mankad, a practicing allergist at Allergy Partners of Raleigh.

Understanding the biology surrounding gluten as well as its impact on our health is important. We are constantly in search of the best diet to follow for optimal health, and the media has a huge impact on what we think will help us lose weight or be healthier.

Is eliminating gluten from your diet the right choice for you? Stay tuned to find out!