Category Archives: FDA

What’s the deal with probiotics?

When I googled “probiotics,” the first couple of sites that showed up (after two paid ad links for probiotic supplements) were WebMd, MedicineNet, LabDoor, MayoClinic, and Wikipedia. I’m not necessarily saying that these sites are illegitimate and shouldn’t be trusted. I am however saying that the link that showed up after these results, a link to the National Insitutes of Health, is by far more trustworthy than those other sources. I’ll continue about probiotics next, but the first lession here is this: What you read and what media you trust as “the truth” will make a huge difference in what you believe and the educated choices you make. Some people/institutions just want to make money. Make sure you are trusting the sources whose contributors desire to educate the public, not make a profit.

Let’s continue with some facts.

What exactly are probiotics?

The NIH Center for Complementary and Integrative Health lists probiotics as live, beneficial bacteria that have a positive impact on human health. You may have seen the words “contains probiotics!” on your favorite brand of yogurt or on dietary supplements. Although it is possible to ingest products with probiotics in them, most people with normal immune systems already have probiotic bacteria already residing in their bodies.

This popuation of naturally-occuring, beneficial bacteria in our bodies is referred to as “gut bacteria,” “the human microbiome,” “our microflora,” and more. Essentially, you should know that there’s millions of bacteria living in you, helping you with digestion and metabolism, contributing to overall homeostasis, and boosting your immune system when harmful pathogens invade the body. These colonies of diverse bacteria are handed down to us during childbirth from our mothers.

Consuming extra probiotics via supplements, yogurt, or other dairy products has the potential to enhance the diversity of bacterial growth within our bodies. However, probiotic foods and supplements need a certain population size to achieve the desired effects of boosting the immune sytem, enhancing digestion, etc. A lot the high-priced supplements you see on the market may not have a high enough concentration of probiotic cultures to make a difference in your health. Some probiotic cultures in these supplements may not even be alive anymore. Even more, according to the NIH, these dietary supplement claiming to provide probiotics “do not require FDA approval before they are marketed.” 

What should I believe?

Studies on probiotics continue to this day. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University’s Center for Excellence in Post-Harvest Technologies recently published a probiotic study in the Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Engineering in July. These scientists showed that two polysaccharides, xanthan and carrageenan, could enhance the resiliency of probiotic cultures in food products and dietary supplements. Xanthan and carrageenan are commonly used as food thickening agents in products like gum. Their chemical composition enable them to be energy sources to bacterial metabolic activity.

If you’re not a science person, the previous paragraph might have gone over your head. What you should know (and this is true in a lot of realms of biomedicine) is that nothing is certain I.E. dietary supplements and dairy products claiming to have beneficial amounts of probiotics. Is yogurt dangerous? No! But don’t pay extra for products claiming to have health benefits that aren’t completely scientifically proven. Even the NIH adds that “there are certain uncertainties about the safety of probiotics…there isn’t enough information right now.”

The North Carolina Research Campus in Kannapolis, North Carolina investigates the functionality of probiotics. The NCA&T Center for Excellence in Post Harvest Technologies recently published a study showing how additive ingredients make probiotic cultures more viable. Check out the article here.

That’s all on probiotics for now. If you have any questions, feel free to send me a tweet @ScienceKara, or an email – kmarker2@gmail.com.

#ScienceKara #GoScience

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FDA Alert On Cilantro From Puebla, Mexico

The recent report of a cyclosporiasis outbreak from cilantro plants is not the first to be issued. Outbreaks also occurred in 2012, 2013, and 2014, all pointing to cilantro from the Mexican state of Puebla.

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan pathogen that specifically infects humans (cyclosporiasis). Protozoan infections are generally more difficult to treat than bacterial or viral infections since protozoa are eukaryotes, just like us. Fewer anti-protozoa treatments exist since there are more similarities between humans and protozoa (and thus less unique targets for drugs) than there are between humans and bacteria (bacteria are prokaryotes – because there are so many differences between human cells and bacteria cells we have a lot of targets for antibacterials).

Cyclosporiasis infections cause diarrhea (like other food-poisoning-related illnesses). In addition to being infected directly from eating contaminated cilantro, people can also become ill through contamination from feces of someone already infected.

Since 2013, the FDA has investigated “11 farms and packing houses that produce cilantro in the state of Puebla” and found 8 farms to either be carrying C. cayetanensis or to be exhibiting dangerous conditions capable of harboring the parasite. The FDA report said these suspect farms contained “human feces and toilet paper found in growing fields and around facilities.”

Because of these findings, the FDA concluded that cilantro products from Puebla are “subject to refusal of admission,” meaning companies receiving cilantro from Puebla can refuse shipments without examination. It is important to note that this FDA report does not include “multi-ingredient processed foods” containing cilantro (only fresh cilantro, intact or cut/chopped).

For the next couple of months if you are buying fresh cilantro, make sure to check the origin of its cultivation. Until the FDA lifts the alert on cilantro from Puebla, it’s not safe to eat. However if you do develop food-poisoning symptoms after eating cilantro, you will be okay. Refuel your body with electrolytes and water – and maintain strict hygiene! You want to flush the parasite out of your system without infecting anyone else.

 

#ScienceKara #GoGuacamole

For more on this issue, check out the following resources:

LabRoots Coverage

Direct access to FDA report